Computer Basics and components for beginners - ProgrammerTech


Computer Basics and components for beginners

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Computer Basics and components for beginners

Computer Identification

A computer is an electronic device that processes data or information as directed. It has specific instructions and has the ability to store and retrieve data. And the computer is used in many of our practical lives (such as writing documents, playing games, surfing the Internet, sending e-mail and other uses).


computer components

The computer consists of two main components, which are the software components, that is, the system software and anything that can be solved in a programmatic way, and hardware components, and these mean the tangible parts of the computer and we will explain them in detail for each component separately.


1 - Software components

Software components are divided into two parts: system software and application software:

  1. System software: It is one of the types of computer programs intended for the computer to run through.
  2. Application programs: are those programs that are used such as documents, or even browsing the Internet or playing games.


2 - Hardware Components

Also known as hardware, it is the tangible components of a computer, and they are:

  • Input unit (mouse, keyboard, microphone).
  • Output unit (monitor, printer, speakers).
  • CPU, which is an acronym for Central Processing Unit.
  • The storage unit is divided into two parts: the internal storage unit (RAM, ROM) and the external storage unit (USB flash drive, CD, DVD).


The Mouse

The mouse is one of the input units in the computer that is used manually for pointing and clicking in the graphical interface. The mouse has two buttons, one on the right and the other on the left. The right mouse button brings the Lists and what is used most is the left mouse button. And in the following picture shows the correct way to hold the mouse and work with it.



How to unlock my computer

To get started on the computer, you must first make sure that all connections are connected correctly. Then look for the power button located somewhere on your computer or computer from one device to another. But it is easy to identify it simply, as the shape of the power button icon takes a unified shape for all devices, which is the shape shown in the image between two devices.

power button in computer

After pressing the start button, the device will open and the first window will appear to us, which is the user screen. This window contains one user or a group of users, and its shape will be as follows

users for computer

Clicking on the user will open the computer desktop.


Desktop Components

It consists of three things, which are divided as follows:

1- The task bar, which is a horizontal bar located at the bottom of the desktop window and has many tasks and contains a Start button. The Start window can be opened in several ways, either by pressing it in the taskbar or pressing the Windows icon on the keyboard next to the ruler.

2- The background of the screen, which is the images that decorate your desktop, No. 2.

3- Windows or icons, which are the set of icons scattered on the desktop, and they are multiple, but there are basic signs, the most important of which are My Computer and Recycle Bin, No. 3 and 4.



Shutdown the computer and switch between users

To turn off the computer or switch between users of this device, first we click on the start menu icon and a button called Shut Down will appear, we click on its options.

We will find five options in the Shot Down button, which are:

  1. Switch user option This option allows us to switch to another user on the computer without shutting down or turning off the computer.
  2. Log off option to close open programs and exit Windows.
  3. The Lock option says to shutdown the computer without closing any open programs.
  4. The Restart option allows us to close all open programs, quit Windows, and restart the computer
  5. Sleep option The computer saves files and open programs and then enters a state of sleep and the hard disk stops spinning and the screen turns off as if the computer is closed.


Control the size of icons and icons on the desktop

This is done by placing the mouse pointer in an empty place on the desktop and then clicking the right button on the mouse to show several options, including View or View (enlarge icons, reduce icons, make icons medium).



Arrange the icons on the desktop

By placing the mouse pointer in an empty place on the desktop and then clicking on the right button on the mouse, the following menu will appear.


We choose sort by (name, size, type, modification date). As for the Refresh option, its function is to activate, and pressing F5 can compensate for pressing the Refresh option.


Change Windows desktop background

We put the mouse pointer in an empty place on the desktop and then we click on the right button of the mouse to bring up a menu from which we choose the “Personalize” option.


When you click on it, another window will appear that looks like the following


We choose the Desktop background to show us another window, we choose an image or a group of images, and then we save it through the Save Changes button, ie, save the changes.


Change the screen saver

We put the mouse pointer in an empty place on the desktop and then we click the right button on the mouse to see our list of Personalize properties, then a window appears from which we choose the screensaver as shown in the image.


Then a window appears, from which we choose the screen saver and set the waiting time


To make the screensaver a 3D animated text, we select the 3D Test option as shown in the image


Then we click on the word Setting, a window will appear


When we click on the word choose color, a window for choosing colors appears, we choose the desired color


Then we press the OK button to return the window as shown in the following picture.



Title bar and its components

The address bar on the computer consists of three basic icons to zoom in, zoom out and close. These icons are:

  1. Close button for the window.
  2. Maximize the window button, and when you click on it, it will make the window to the full screen, and when the mark becomes two squares, and if it is full screen and we click on it, it will return to the minimized size as it was before the magnification.
  3. The Minimize button makes the window disappear from the desktop and only the name of it remains on the taskbar in order to restore it when needed by clicking on it from the taskbar.

The following image shows the buttons we mentioned above.


To download this lesson as a pdf file to read it in the absence of the Internet. Click on the following button to download it directly from Google Drive.

Saja Alsadig

Saja Alsadig

من السودان مبرمجة مواقع ويب و تطبيقات أندرويد اتقن لغات "html, css, php, js" بالإضافة للتعامل مع اندرويد ستوديو و بناء التطبيقات, مهتمة بمجال التقنية منذ الصغر و كان لدي شقف كبير للدخول بالجامعه بقسم البرمجة و دخلته في عام 2013 و تعلمت كل شيئ ضمن الجامعة و خارجها من التعليم الذاتي و اتمنى أن أكون عند حسن ظن الجميع و إيصال الأمانة لكم, اعمل حاليا في إدارة موقع جامعة السودان.